Are you frustrated having to be quarantined at home? Are you missing your former social life? Do you want to go out to eat and not sit 6 feet apart? Are you so done with wearing a face mask that you just rip it off and don’t care what happens?

Well, welcome to life with Covid-19. After Memorial Day celebrations and massive crowds, there is now a resurgence of the virus in many cities. The United States has the most cases and now, more deaths due to this virus than anywhere else in the world. Latest reports state we could have 200,000 deaths by October 2020. This is not a number to be ignored. With July 4 celebrations upon us and people swarming the beaches now that summer is here, the death toll could be even higher.

I know that neither you nor I have any desire to get sick. We are assuming because we are strong that it can’t happen to us and if it does, it will just be a mild case. You know, there is some evidence of that…if you are young, have a strong immune system and don’t hang with people who have been ill, this may be the case. But, guess what? Most people in the U.S. have poor immune systems, eat very unhealthy and get little exercise.

Those who got the sickest from Corona Virus had underlying medical conditions. Diabetes, obesity, heart disease, lung disease, and autoimmune disorders are all contributors to poor outcomes in getting through this or any other virus, regardless of age. And, according to the National Research Council, and Institutes of Medicine, Americans have one of the highest rates of obesity, diabetes and heart disease in the world. In other words, we are not a healthy nation at all. These studies were for those age 20 and over. Clearly, just because you are young does not mean you are immune.

So, while you are shuttered at home (which most of us are not), you might consider taking this time to get healthy. Instead of adding the Corona 15 to your waist line, find ways to eat a leaner, cleaner diet. Get off the processed foods. It is NOT more expensive to eat healthy. In fact, in the long run, it is a lot cheaper. By eliminating junk foods and sugar laden carbs and putting those same dollars toward organic veggies, fruits and grass fed meats, you will come out pretty even. And, your medical bills will be lower.

Your future health depends on this. What you put in your mouth today, will show up in your brain and body over the next 20 years. And, the years go by very fast. The next thing you know you will be looking in the mirror and asking yourself how you go this way. You will also be asking yourself why you feel so sluggish.

Wouldn’t it be great to come out of this pandemic healthier, better looking, feeling more energized and even protecting your brain against memory loss. You can do it. So, besides being smart enough to keep your distance from others and wearing your masks if you can’t keep away, start researching ways to get healthy.

With a plethora of websites, there is no excuse to be ignorant of what a healthy diet is. Check out one of the 100s (yes 100s) of diets from keto to intermittent fasting (easy to do) to vegetarian and more. You can experiment with what is best for you. Make it fun. Take your family along on the ride. Do you want to be the one to care for a sickly parent or child later on when all of it might be avoidable just through changing your diet and lifestyle?

I wish you all luck. Let me know how you do. If you want any guidance, feel free to email me. I’ll be happy to answer your questions.

Surviving and Patience in the Age of the Corona Virus

Millions are currently out of work and seriously concerned about where their next meal is coming from and how they can pay their mortgage. It is a sad state of affairs to have to choose between your financial well being and your health. But, taking your anger and frustration out on healthcare workers, police, mayors and governors trying to protect you is unacceptable.

Recently, people are carrying guns in protest (and wearing Nazi flags…not very American). What are you going to do? Shoot the virus – or maybe the police or the nurses? How idiotic. How utterly mean. This is incredibly foolish and dangerous. Going out without masks and not keeping social distancing is endangering not just others, but yourself as well.

I know there is a lot of misinformation coming down off social media. I have read them. By the way, they have not only been debunked, but are downright lies. But, even if you do believe the lies, there is something out there that is killing people. And, this virus does not care about your politics, or your sex or race nor if you carry guns.

So, my question to those of you who just want everything to get back to normal and think you are immune, what would you do if you were the governor or mayor? Would you just let people resume their lives as if nothing happened? Would you not show any caring for those who are dying? Are you so concerned about yourself and yourself alone, that you do not give a damn if anyone else gets sick? How would you, if you were an elected official, handle this pandemic?

Anyone can take to the streets and complain. It takes a real intelligent leader to make a plan. I really don’t think officials are trying to hurt any of us. They want to save you, from yourself. So, what is your plan? Or is all you can do is complain?

I do my best to stay appraised of this situation. I want desperately to travel to see my new grandson and be able to hold him. But, alas, I would not take the chance for myself or my family. I wear a mask and gloves when I go out. If I’m on the beach and 6 or more feet from someone, I pull the mask down. But, I have it with me. Many don’t. It really isn’t so difficult nor confining to do this.

Like everyone else, I want this country to get back to work. It is difficult not being able to spend time with others or go to places. If I don’t get to a hairdresser soon, I may consider just letting myself go gray. But, I have to wait. And, I didn’t get any unemployment, nor that extra $1200 from Uncle Sam. I’m stuck on a limited income. But, I will be patient, as hard as it is because I don’t want to get sick. And, I care about others as well.

During World War II, British citizens had to live on rations and stay inside for years, for fear of being bombed. There may have been those who complained, but citizens did not attack citizens for helping protect them. Young Anne Frank, had to shelter in a small secret annex for two years in the Netherlands. There were 8 people being secreted in an annex fit for 2. No one could go out shopping or take a run, nor could they even yell. Where is your patience?

I believe we can slowly reopen businesses, as is being done. We are not all New Yorkers. But, New York is a good indicator of what could happen if we don’t continue to practice protective measures. So behave, be patient, and be a good American and care about your self and your fellow citizens. Wear a mask, wash your hands and stay 6 feet away from anyone.


I am of the age where I am required or, it is strongly suggested, that I shelter in place. I don’t have a fever. I do my work from home-on my computer. Not surrounded by too many others- though going to Costco the other day was definitely a less than 6 foot apart experience. (If I get sick, it’s probably Costco’s fault. )

I have gone shopping. Went out and had my haircut. Watching a lot of t.v. – boring as ever. Texting, emailing, calling friends, doing a lot of reading; some cooking and cleaning. Have definitely stocked the fridge and cabinets, but still can’t locate available toilet paper. And, have started taking a class online too. But, all this is not too much of a far cry from how I have been living my life the past few months anyway.

What would I do if there was no virus? Just going out more. What would you be doing? How different is it for many of you? If you are without work and pay, it is likely quite different. And it’s probably a good idea to get really creative now about how you manage your money and even how you are going to budget once this nightmare has passed (and it will pass). It also can be a time to meditate, create and value who and what is important in your life.

I find it a bit humorous that people are making a big stink about ‘sheltering’ when it has really only been a few days. Schools are not even closed in all states. Here, in California, the schools and libraries closed down officially between one and two weeks ago–THAT’S ALL. Vacations are longer than that. Though if you live paycheck to paycheck, it can be very frightening. But, becoming frantic about it, does not help your situation.

If you have a family, I realize many of you can’t stand to spend more than 2 hours at most with your kids or your partner and may find yourselves lovingly challenged having to deal with this situation. One way could be actually talking to each other. Finding out about what is important. Every tv station and streaming video is giving tips on how to keep busy and entertain your kids. Well, how about doing something totally different – NOTHING.

What if you learned how to and taught your family how to meditate. Think about it. Spending 10 minutes a day (or more) being totally quiet and pensive, focusing on your breath or on a beautiful object and letting your thoughts just drift by without judgement. And, the entire household does it as an experiment on togetherness.

If you live alone, you can practice it yourself. I do. It can be ‘contagious’. Once you start a regular practice, you find you really look forward to doing it everyday. What’s more, you can reap the benefits of meditation: improved health; less pain; lower blood pressure, lower anger and stress in your life leading to a happier and much healthier life; counter the effects of the aging brain (yes, it can keep you looking and thinking younger), and so much more. You gain more compassion for yourself and others. It also helps with focusing and learning – helping you and your children to function in a stressful world. And, calms both you and the kids – they can learn this early and carry it with them throughout life. Meditation even helps getting through the deep concerns you have about money. Things pop up in meditation that can clear the way for you too.

It really isn’t that hard. People say, “I just can’t do that. I’m not that type of person.” Of course you can. Anyone can. People all over the world do it. It’s just a matter of being committed and caring about yourself. Because people associate meditation with a group of orange clad monks sitting on pillows or concrete and chanting, you think you have to do it that way to meditate. Not so.

Besides being able to just sit in a quiet place, focus on your breath and count or say ‘one’ or ‘om’ or anything else you want to say, like ‘love’, ‘peace’ or say nothing at all, that’s how it starts. Take 3 deep breaths, then go back to comfortable natural breathing. When your mind wanders – and it will – it’s supposed to – just notice it, “oh, there goes my active mind again – wandering.” DON’T JUDGE IT. Bring it back to your breath or your word or an object that you might be focusing on. Set a timer for 5 minutes the first day and just NOTICE NOTICE NOTICE how it is. The second day add a minute, another minute the next day…etc. etc. When you are at 20 minutes, you will be very surprised how fast that time has gone and how wonderful you feel – and you might even want to do more. If you are doing this as a family, challenge each other to see who can sit the longest (okay, maybe this isn’t a good idea) or give a token or reward for the longest meditator – but they have to really be doing it, not just sitting (though that would be nice too.)

This too shall pass and hopefully, we don’t return to our previous normal. We have learned something from all this and it has brought us all closer and more compassionate. Keep on meditating. And, maybe this new normal of compassion and caring could go viral.

Please let me know if you do it and if you do, how it worked out for you.

Finding Your Purpose

One of the characteristics of people who live longer and healthy lives is having purpose – having something that is important to you and gets you out of yourself. But, what does that mean? There are workshops and seminars and expensive weekends where some ‘guru’ will tell you how to find your passion, your life’s purpose and make your life fulfilling and meaningful.

I have a slightly different take now that I am retired and have experienced many years of fulfillment and purpose. For me, purpose is now to live a happy, healthy life and enjoy friends, family, my dogs and reading, and painting and even just watching TV. I no longer have to save the world, or go on Shark Tank with some new product. My purpose is to appreciate all I have right now.

This does not mean I lay on my bed and watch Netflix all day – on the contrary – I find that rather boring. But, now being released from the pressure to find that “purpose”, that greatness, that passion, is so relieving and even, shall I say, spiritual, that I am feeling more fulfilled in whatever I do. And, surprisingly enough, more and more wonderful things keep coming to me in what seems to be ‘out of the blue’.

And, just maybe, that’s been the idea all along. To appreciate and be grateful for everything I do have. Even the ability to clean the house and scrub floors says I’m alive and my body is working – how wonderful is that.

If everything you see, do and have is something to rejoice in – isn’t that passion. Start from there. It will take you to other moments of joy and purpose.

Upset over the climate change issue – well then, get involved even if it’s just a few hours a month. Angry over what’s happening with the homeless and housing issue, there are many ways to get involved. Anger, by the ways, says you are passionate about something – whatever it is. Look at that underlying anger over issues. Turn that into action and voila, you have purpose. Then appreciate that you have done something, feel something and are involved in something outside of your own self interests.

Maybe your meaningful life is to be a great employee (in whatever you do) and/or a great parent or partner. All of those things take work and bring you fulfillment. So, get off the merry-go-round of comparing yourself to those who have made millions with an app – that is far from meaningful anyway – and appreciate your life as it is right this second. Your purpose and joy is yours alone. Comparing is so painful.

And, if you feel you are lacking in meaning, open yourself up to your purpose and all that joy coming into your life no matter how large or small. One step at a time, one little thing at a time and you will fill your days, weeks, months, and years with great joy and meaning. And, isn’t that the purpose all along?!

Getting Angry Too Often?

Do you find yourself getting angry for no reason – or maybe you have a reason and have a hard time controlling the anger. Is it time to see a professional about this? Is it time to go on medications (I hope not) or is it time to take a look at your diet.

Anger and food are closely aligned. Anger is associated with the liver, in Chinese medicine. And, the liver is responsible for processing all the poisons out of your body – along with a few other functions. If you have been putting in too much junk, alcohol, sugar and processed foods along with lots of medications and even supplements into your body, your liver may not be able to process it well. The result, you feel like poop and it can come out as anger towards others and even towards yourself.

So, if you, your partner or even your children have a hard time controlling their anger, take a look at your diet. Try eliminating processed foods and decreasing sugar and alcohol intake for a week and just notice if it makes a difference.

And, as always, contact me if you want more information or would like to consider having a health coach. Email me at Care enough about yourself to get healthy.

Food and Your Moods

Though I have not written in awhile, I am back – hooray. Hope someone is reading this besides me. I’ve been out for two main reasons: my website locked me out and the computer went kafluey for over 3 months – took me 5 trips to Geek Squad to get it fixed.

But during this time, I have been studying to become an integrative nutrition health coach through IIN – a great online education to become an integrative health coach – something the world is going to need more of as we become an increasingly obese and unhealthy world. I am doing the 6 month accelerated program – regular program takes a year. I’m very impressed with all they teach regarding both primary and secondary food.

Primary food is NOT what you put in your mouth. It’s your relationships, your finances, your career, spirituality, home environment, home cooking, your overall health, exercise, your social life, education, your career and the amount of joy in your life. Secondary food is everything you put in your mouth and, hopefully, digest.

The importance of primary food cannot be overestimated. Even when you are not the best eater, if you have a great support system and community, your health is better. Today, we are suffering from an epidemic of Loneliness. Facebook, Twitter, Instagram just don’t cut it. We need face to face contact while not being on our phones or laptops. We need to connect to be healthy.

Though I will continue to write more about food/mood/health/happiness and a good life, take the first step in your life. Get out of your comfort zone and out of your home. Go do something with or for someone else. Talk to others. Smile at someone. Reach out. Share a meal. Do a favor. Go visit someone who is unable to get out. Notice how much better and joyous you feel.

You don’t need to do this all at once. Little by little. Notice how it affects your own health and disposition. Break out of that “sit home, watch Netflix, play computer games” habit. You can always go back to it. But, I assure you, you will feel and love the change once you take a leap and connect. May not happen immediately – but please, don’t give up. It’s worth it for your life and your health and happiness.

Gratitude Journaling Makes Life Better

Been unable to get into my site, and I’ve been lazy, but back on now and ready to just post my opinions and guidance once again.

I make a point of requesting that my clients do a Gratitude Journal everyday. Just buy an inexpensive little book that you can put daily entries in and keep it private, it’s nobody else’s business what you write.

Everyday, write, don’t type or put it in your phone, what you are grateful for that day. You start out saying: “Today, I am grateful for:” and then you can list a few things or just one thing that you are thankful for. It doesn’t have to be anything big. It can be a beautiful tree or sunset that you noticed that day. It could be a tasty meal. Or it could be something big like winning $20 on your lottery ticket. Try to put down something different everyday. If it’s just one thing, write down why it was so meaningful for you.

Some people just list a bunch of things. That’s not necessary. It’s your journal. Write what works for you. Then close with ‘thank you for all this and more.”

You might just notice that the more you are grateful for, the more you will have to be grateful for…every single day. This is also a mindfulness exercise. It keeps you focused on things you notice everyday that you are grateful for. Great for keeping the brain focused and growing.

If you miss a day – okay. Just try to do it as often as possible. Most people report that they notice a positive difference in their lives when they continue to do journaling. Oprah talked about gratitude journals years ago. I think I paid a smidgeon of attention at that time, but it always stuck in my mind. Now, not only do I practice what I preach, I make it a regular homework assignment for clients.

Try it. It’s easy to do. Can be done anytime during the day (I prefer writing before bedtime). It’s your journal. Make it yours.

The Opioid Crisis and Big Pharma

Listening to 60 minutes on the opioid crisis and the governments complicity in allowing the pharmaceuticals to continue to push these drugs.  This is a repeat but it still incenses me.  By now, everyone knows the drug companies and its distribution outlets couldn’t care less about your health.  It’s all about profit.  And, this report by 60 minutes now just links the government, both Congress and the FDA, to this epidemic.

Big pharma has big money.  They only care about profit.  This is what happens when money and greed rule and we have the best Congress money can buy.  It is only getting worse.  And, even though you think you have choice in the matter, you don’t.

The DEA, thanks to Congress, has little power to enforce laws against drug companies.  It’s okay to go after the mom and pop stores or the Latino who has a small part in this.  But to go after the pharmaceutical companies, like Cardinal Health and McKesson is verboten.  Could it be that is because the pharmaceutical industry has spent 2.5 Billion dollars on lobbying effort in 2017.  Or that they spent $900 million on lobbying between 1998 and 2005.  You bet.  They bought Congress.  There is way too much money in pushing drugs and to addict people.

They do not care about you or your children’s life.  They may profess how important ‘our children’ are, but they have actually taken no action to make a difference   Over 63,000 people died due to opioids in 2016.  And 40% of those deaths are due to prescription opioids.  That’s more than died in 9/11 and in the Vietnam War.

Many hospitals are now putting in protocols regarding prescribing opioids.  But, the pharmaceutical industry is doing their best to continue to push their use beyond necessity.  So, ask yourself, who is really the ‘drug pusher’ here and who are the collaborators.

(Opioids include oxycodone`, fentanyl, methadone, hydrocodone, Vicodin, Norco, Lortab, and new stronger morphine type drugs are being created and distributed as well.}

If this concerns you, write Congress, write the President, the FDA, and talk with your doctor should they insist (like some Occupational doctors do) that you take these medications, even if you don’t want them.  This happens way too often.  These meds don’t speed up healing and, as you know, they are highly addictive.



Everyone, including me, has suffered the loss of a relationship, a death of someone we loved, a friendship, a job and our dreams.  The pain of this loss can last from weeks to what seems like forever.  How do we get through this?  So often, it seems that we don’t and even feel we can’t.  But, we can and we can thrive.

When we feel rejected, especially by someone who we thought would never reject us, like a child, a spouse, a parent, it’s such a crushing feeling.  It can bring sadness and in some cases, it can become debilitating.  In one case, I know of a women, who deeply loved her child, ended up in a legal battle with him due to unforeseen circumstances. She won the case, but lost her adult son.   He has not spoken to her in years.  And, though they were very close for most of his life, this ended whatever they might have had.  She became despondent.  Ended up with serious illnesses, including cancer and deep depression.  Formerly, a healthy person, this blow was too much for her system. 

She survived.  She finally accepted this painful situation and realized if her emotions continued to get the best of her, she was going to die.  After a great deal of inner work, she accepted what was and sent love and joy to her son…wanting only the best for him.  Today, she is doing very well and working everyday.  Yes, she misses him.  But, her being in pain did not help anyone. She embraced acceptance and compassion for her self and her son.

This is not uncommon.  We literally can make ourselves sick when we go through a loss. Part of us believes that if we are sick, the other might come to visit.  We feel we don’t deserve to be happy or healthy if the other rejected us.  If the other has died, do we deserve to live.  The connection to the other is so strong, we don’t even know who we are without them.

A reasonable period of time to grieve our loss is appropriate and healthy.  That period varies depending on the person and the situation.  And, there are some techniques to help you get through. 

Of course, talking with someone and not being alone with this pain is so important.  For some, there are groups, which can be very valuable. (Please look up an appropriate group for your needs on the internet or ask a friend or your therapist or doctor).

Make sure to take care of yourself.  We all hear the phrase ‘self-care’ but don’t necessarily know what that means.  Briefly, it means sleeping well, eating right (minimize alcohol and sugars), exercising -walking always works well and it helps to be out in nature.  Being alone for long is not healthy.  If you only have one or two good friends, that is fine, spend time with them.  Involvement in a community contributes to health and happiness. If you have a religious community, utilize them.  If you have a hobby or a way to help others, do it, that improves mood and functioning as well.

If you meditate, which I highly recommend, there is a Buddhist method called Tonglen.  As you sit quietly and focus on your breath, you breathe in the pain (yes, breathe in the pain) and on the outbreath, you send peace, love, joy…whatever is appropriate to the other or to yourself.  In fact, you can do this many times and everytime can be for yourself, the other, or to all those who have suffered the loss you have.  And, if it brings you tears, that is wonderful too.

There are other methods to help you get through which include grief therapy, emotional freedom technique (also known as Tapping), and above all acceptance.  Refusal to accept the situation as it is, only brings more pain and is like King Sisyphus of Greek mythology.  His punishment for his hubris was having to roll a boulder uphill to the top of a mountain only to have it roll down every time it reached the top.  He was condemned to a lifetime of suffering. 

Loss is part of life. No one escapes this life without suffering some loss or rejection at some time.   As a human being you have a right to be happy, healthy and live a full life.  Should you be in the throws of loss and find yourself in pain, take a moment, accept the situation, send compassion and love to yourself and even to the other, and do something nice for yourself.  Continue to practice this everyday and you will wake up one morning and realize it is not the first thought that comes into your mind nor distract you from living a good and happy life. 

Do not hesitate to seek counseling if you need assistance in getting through this time.



I completed a training in Nutritional and Integrative Medicine for Mental Health professionals last week. I had the joy of spending 5 days in Sedona at the Mago Retreat Center with about 65 other wonderful people who want to really help heal people without their having to be on medications for the rest of their lives.  Medications that, for the most part, don’t really work.

Are you aware that your gut is considered your second brain? And, did you know that between 80 and 95% of serotonin (your happy hormone) is created in the gut – not in your brain.  Yet, anti-depressant medications target the brain area that is responsible for Serotonin production.  That is, no doubt, why most SSRIs do not work effectively and have to be amplified by taking another drug.  And, it is well know that Effexor, a commonly prescribed SSRI, is not as effective as exercise in decreasing depressive symptoms (this was in Effexor’s own research).  Coming off Effexor and other SSRIs can be a long, painful and tedious process, to say nothing of the initial side effects of SSRIs – constipation (that’ll depress you), weight gain, low sex drive (now that’s pretty depressive too).

One of the other issues with SSRI medications is that there is a connection between long term use and the development of Alzheimers.

Now, I am not anti-medication. There are times when people do need an anti-depressant or even an anti-anxiety to get them through.   But, coming off is very difficult and takes months – if done correctly.  What I am anti- is the wholesale distribution by the psychiatric and pharmaceutical industries in pushing medications that do not really resolve issues and can have long term negative effects. It is rare to find a psychiatrist who actually wants to practice psychiatry anymore.  Typically, you get 20 minutes (max) with the doctor who is deciding which medicine to put you on.  Or, you don’t even see an MD you get to see a nurse practitioner or a physician’s assistant – who basically does the same thing.  Then, they might refer you for therapy – where you should have gone initially.

They rarely, if ever, recommend a change in diet, ask you about your sugar consumption or even your alcohol consumption.  How is your social life? Do you have friends – ones that are supportive?  Do you spend a lot of time alone sitting in front of the tv eating?  How is work?  Is it stressful?  Do you hate what you do?  Do you have any goals or purpose that drives you?   Do you come from a family where one of your parents was an addict?

These are significant in how your life is? Do you exercise at all?  Exercise is actually more effective than most anti-depressants (this is documented).  Do you get enough sunlight?  Most of us are deficient in vitamin D3.  We are all pretty deficient in B12- a soluble vitamin that is excreted everyday.  It is considered the Stress Vitamin and we all need it.  Do you regularly consume that each day (with food).

There are so many ways to handle difficult issues outside of medication. Medication typically dulls the senses so you can get through the day.  It does not correct or resolve the situations that have caused the depression or anxiety  in the first place.  That means you are stuck forever if you can’t get out of the stuckness of your mind.

At the training, it became evident that there are many environmental and nutritional reasons for depression as well – not just that you were jilted or your boss yelled at you or you had a mean parent.

How is your sleep? Lack of quality sleep often leads to depression.  Do you have physical pain?  This is a major reason for depressive moods.  Are you eating foods that cause depression – sugar, gluten, dairy, soy, foods with lots of artificial additives (aspartame). These are foods that have been shown to cause serious allergies, bloating, leaky gut syndrome, anxiety and depression.

It is amazing how many people clean up their diet and find that they are no longer depressed. That the unhealthy parasites that have been dwelling inside you for years, feasting on your sugar consumption have made you moody and depressed and often anxious.  Notice how alcoholics get after they drink – moody, angry, depressed.  The alcohol turns into sugar that alters brain chemistry and results in mood swings and nasty side effects.

Mood follows Food. So notice how you feel after you eat up to 36 hours after (some even say up to 3 days later).  Keep a food diary and a mood diary.  You might even notice that a glass of apple juice is too much sugar for you and you get jumpy.  Depending on your constitution, even a so called healthy food could be negative for you.

Don’t take my word for it.  Notice for yourself how you are.  How your kids are.   You might think you are giving them healthy food – because the box of cereal says ‘fortified with B vitamins’.  But, I assure you it is still laden with sugar, artificial additives and, in now ay considered a healthy food.

There is plenty of information now on what is healthy and what is a promotion. Educate yourself.  Keep yourself strong, healthy, vibrant and stave off memory loss and other so called ‘age-related’ illnesses.   Yes, you may slow down a bit, but your brain can still be active and alert well into your 90s.   Don’t buy into the TV ads or the pharmaceutical ads.  There are other, healthier ways than stuffing yourself with medications.  They should only be a last resort – not the go to answer.

More to come…..